The Situation of Youth in the Southern African Development Community, An Overview of SADC countries.

 

Country Summaries

 



Researched for the Youth Development Network by the Community Agency for Social Enquiry (CASE)

Introduction.. 1

Methodology.. 2

Desktop Study.. 2

Key Sources of Information.. 2

Access to Information.. 3

Access to Youth-Specific Information.. 3

Quality, Reliability & Consistency of Data.. 4

Conclusion.. 4

Republic Of Angola.. 5

Introduction.. 5

Definition of Youth.. 5

Literacy Rate. 5

Years of Compulsory Education.. 5

Skills Training available to Youth.. 5

Impact of Education on Employability.. 6

Employability.. 6

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 6

What affects levels of Employment?. 6

Historical Trends in Youth (un) employment.. 6

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 6

Types of Youth Employment.. 6

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 7

Youth HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 7

Knowledge About HIV/AIDS prevention amongst Youth.. 7

Impact HIV/AIDS on Employment.. 7

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 7

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 7

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 7

How Successfully have they been Implemented.. 8

Conclusion.. 8

Republic Of Botswana.. 9

Introduction.. 9

Definition of Youth.. 9

Literacy Rate. 9

Years of Compulsory Education.. 9

Skills Training available to Youth.. 9

Impact of Education on Employability.. 9

Employability.. 10

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployment.. 10

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 10

Type of Youth Employment.. 10

What affects levels of Employment?. 10

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 10

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 10

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 11

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 11

Knowledge about HIVAIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 11

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 11

Policies which affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 11

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 11

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 12

Conclusion.. 12

Democratic Republic Of Congo.. 13

Introduction.. 13

Definition of Youth.. 13

Literacy Rate. 13

Years of Compulsory Education.. 13

Skill Training available to Youth.. 13

Impact of Education on Employability.. 13

Employability.. 14

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 14

Types of Youth Employment.. 14

What Affects levels of Employment?. 14

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 14

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 14

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 15

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 15

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 15

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 15

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 15

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 15

Details Of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 15

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 15

Conclusion.. 16

Republic Of Lesotho.. 17

Introduction.. 17

Definition of Youth.. 17

Literacy Rate. 17

Years of Compulsory Education.. 17

Skills Training Available to Youth.. 17

Impact of Education on Employability.. 17

Employability.. 18

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 18

Types of Youth Employment.. 18

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 18

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment.. 18

What affects levels of Employment?. 18

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 18

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 18

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment.. 18

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 19

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 19

Policies which affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 19

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 19

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 19

Conclusion.. 20

Republic Of Malawi 21

Introduction.. 21

Definition of Youth.. 21

Literacy Rate. 21

Years of Compulsory Education.. 21

Skills Training available to Youth.. 21

Impact of Education on Employability.. 22

Employability.. 22

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 22

Types of Youth Employment.. 22

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 22

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 23

What Affects levels of Employment.. 23

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 23

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 23

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 23

Knowledge about HIVAIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 23

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 23

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 24

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 24

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 24

Conclusion.. 24

Republic Of Mauritius.. 25

Introduction.. 25

Definition of Youth.. 25

Literacy Rate. 25

Years of Compulsory Education.. 25

Skills Training available to Youth.. 25

Impact of Education on Employability.. 26

Employability.. 26

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 26

Types of Youth Employment.. 26

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 26

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 26

What affects Levels of Employment?. 27

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 27

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 27

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 27

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 27

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 27

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 27

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 28

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 28

Conclusion.. 28

Republic Of Mozambique. 29

Introduction.. 29

Definition of Youth.. 29

Literacy Rate. 29

Years of Compulsory Education.. 29

Skills Training Available to Youth.. 29

Impact of Education on Employability.. 30

Employability.. 30

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 30

Types of Youth Employment.. 30

Historical Trends in Youth (un)Employment.. 30

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 30

What affects Levels of Employment.. 30

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 30

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 31

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 31

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 31

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 31

Policies which affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 31

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 31

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 31

Conclusion.. 32

Republic Of Namibia.. 33

Introduction.. 33

Definition of Youth.. 33

Literacy Rate. 33

Years of Compulsory Education.. 33

Skills Training Available to Youth.. 33

Impact of Education on Employability.. 34

Employability.. 34

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 34

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 34

Types of Youth Employment.. 34

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment.. 34

What Affects levels of Employment.. 34

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 34

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 35

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 35

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 35

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 35

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 35

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 35

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 36

Conclusion.. 36

Republic of Seychelles.. 37

Republic Of South Africa.. 38

Introduction.. 38

Definition of Youth.. 38

Literacy Rate. 38

Skills Training available to Youth.. 38

Impact of Education on Employability.. 38

Employability.. 39

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 39

Historical Trends in Youth Unemployment.. 39

Types of Youth Employment.. 39

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 39

What Affects Levels of Employment.. 40

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 40

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 40

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 40

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 40

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 40

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 41

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 41

How successfully have they been Implemented?. 41

Conclusion.. 41

Kingdom Of Swaziland.. 42

Introduction.. 42

Definition of Youth.. 42

Literacy Rate. 42

Years of Compulsory Education.. 42

Skills Training available to Youth.. 42

Employability.. 42

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 43

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment.. 43

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 43

Types of Youth Employment.. 43

What affects levels of Employment.. 43

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 43

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 43

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment.. 43

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 44

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 44

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 44

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 44

How successfully have they been Implemented?. 44

Conclusion.. 44

United Republic Of Tanzania.. 46

Introduction.. 46

Definition of Youth.. 46

Literacy Rate. 46

Years of Compulsory Education.. 46

Skills Training available to Youth.. 46

Impact of Education on Employability.. 46

Employability.. 47

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 47

Types of Youth Employment.. 47

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment.. 47

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 47

What Affects Levels of Employment.. 47

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 47

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 47

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment.. 48

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 48

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 48

Policies Which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 48

Details of Youth Specific or Youth Related Policies. 48

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 49

Conclusion.. 49

Republic Of Zambia.. 50

Introduction.. 50

Definition of Youth.. 50

Literacy Rate. 50

Years of Compulsory Education.. 50

Skills Training Available to Youth.. 50

Impact of Education on Employability.. 50

Employability.. 51

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed.. 51

Types of Youth Employment.. 51

Historical Trends in Youth Employment.. 51

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employable. 51

What Affects levels of Employment.. 51

Youth and HIV/AIDS. 51

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment.. 52

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 52

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 52

Policies which Affect Youth Related Policies. 52

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 52

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 52

Conclusion.. 53

Republic Of Zimbabwe. 54

Introduction.. 54

Definition of Youth.. 54

Literacy Rate. 54

Years of Compulsory Education.. 54

Skills Training available to Youth.. 54

Employability.. 55

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Employed.. 55

Types of Youth Employment.. 55

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment.. 55

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment.. 55

HIV/AIDS Prevalence. 55

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment.. 56

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence. 56

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth.. 56

Key Challenges Facing Youth.. 56

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies. 56

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes. 56

How Successfully have they been Implemented?. 57

Conclusion.. 57


The Youth Employment Summit (YES2002), an initiative of civil society, multi-lateral agencies, the private sector and other youth related stakeholders launched the Youth Employment Summit Decade Campaign of Action as a response to high rates of youth unemployment worldwide.[1] The YES Decade Campaign of Action aims to build young people’s capacity to create sustainable livelihoods and to establish an entrepreneurial culture in which young people can work towards self-employment.

 

As part of the YES Decade Campaign of Action the Youth Development Network (YDN), a South African network of youth organisations, is involved in a Southern African regional project aimed at promoting youth employment in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Among other activities, this project aims to develop a database on the situation of youth in the SADC region.

 

The Community Agency for Social Enquiry (C A S E) was commissioned by the YDN to produce a database on the situation of youth in the 14 SADC[2] countries. The database will form part of the implementation of the Youth Employment Summit Regional Support Plan for Southern Africa.  The database was expected to source a wide range of youth-specific information on education, skills, employment policies and programmes as well as social and political integration of youth. This information was complemented by contextually specific information on the general economic, political and social climate of each SADC country. The requested information can be grouped into 6 distinct categories:

1.      Contextual information;

2.      Youth-specific economic indicators;

3.      Education and Skills;

4.      Youth-specific employment policies;

5.      Key challenges facing young people; and

6.      Social and Political integration.

This report contains the executive summaries of the final report submitted to the YDN.

Desktop Study

The key method of data collection was a web-based search of the above-described categories, in which the collection and analysis of data was undertaken in a two-stage process. The first stage involved an internet search of information that was the most readily and easily accessible, as well as the use of C A S E publications and other printed materials. The second stage of the project involved a continuation of the methods deployed during stage 1, as well as telephonic and e-mail requests for missing information from relevant sources in the different SADC countries.

 

The initial stage assisted in identifying existing youth stakeholders who would be contacted in the second phase of the project. In the second stage of the project identified youth-serving or related ministries, youth-related organisations and national statistical agencies were contacted via email and telephone for missing or more reliable information.

Key Sources of Information

There were nine key sources of information that provided information on the general status of the each country, and the situation of youth in each country. Sectoral information on education, health, labour and infrastructural development was accessible from sources such as UNICEF, WHO, ILO and UN Habitat. Other sources of information were government websites, the World Bank, the IMF, newspaper articles and NGOs and CBOs that posted information on their websites.

 

Sources such as the Reserve and Central banks and the CIA World Fact Book provided contextual information for each country. For example, the CIA World Fact Book and the World Bank provided information on a country’s GDP and major economic sectors. The CIA World Fact Book also provided information on each country’s geographical location and size, political history and social information such as languages spoken in that country. These sources also provided a basic overview of the educational systems and health situation for some of the SADC countries.

Access to Information

Certain kinds of information on each SADC country were readily accessible, while other types of information required longer searches. For example, information on the social, economic and political climate was easily accessible from a range of sources.

 

Information on each SADC country’s population size, sex, race and age breakdowns of the population was readily available from a number of sources. Additionally, country indicator-information such as access to water, electricity and sanitation was easily accessible from sources such as UN Habitat, CIA World Fact Book and the World Bank among other sources. However, in some countries this information had to be supplemented extensively by in-country sources of information, especially with regard to electricity access. Internal and external sources often specified different levels of access to basic resources.

 

Other types of data that were easy to obtain were country information on the systems and levels of education and enrolment rates at each level was generally obtainable from UNICEF. Life expectancy and infant mortality data was available from various sources.

 

HIV/AIDS prevalence estimates for all the 14 SADC countries were the most accessible, although different sources generally stated different prevalence rates. For each country, there was at least one source that had data on the unemployment rate of the whole population and the major economic sectors of employment.

Access to Youth-Specific Information

Information on the age definition of youth for each country was sometimes unavailable and in other cases multiple definitions were used by various sources. A particular obstacle was that the various UN organisations where often the only source of youth-specific information, but that their definition of youth (15-24 years) did not necessarily coincide with country-specific definitions. For example, Mozambique’s definition of youth is 14-35 years and Namibia’s definition is 15-30 years.

 

Information about the cost and availability of primary, secondary and tertiary education was not obtainable for all SADC countries. Furthermore, not all of the SADC countries had information on the availability of youth skills and vocational training opportunities.

 

While data on the general unemployment rate was generally obtainable for most countries, this was not always the case for levels of youth unemployment. However, youth unemployment is generally estimated to be substantially higher than overall unemployment. Detailed labour force information about sectors of youth employment, type of youth employment (e.g. part/full time), remuneration by sector and historical trends in youth employment often did not exist. Furthermore, information on employment policies and programmes targeted at youth was often difficult or impossible to obtain, which presents an obstacle for legitimately assessing the types of opportunities youth had in each country.

Quality, Reliability & Consistency of Data

There were significant differences in the quality and reliability of the collected data between the different SADC countries. The major factor in this was often whether or not a country had its own statistical agency or if it relied solely on data from international agencies. Another important factor was the political and social stability within a given country.

 

Data collected from different sources was also rarely consistent, with different statistics being reported for the same questions. This was particularly the case with HIV/AIDS prevalence rates and levels of unemployment in each country. A major factor was again that this type of data generally had to be sourced from international agencies like the UN or the ILO because it had not been collected within the country concerned, and that these figures are generally based on estimates and projections. Another general challenge was sourcing relevant and recent data, as some of the statistics available were often very outdated.

Conclusion

Although to varying degrees, it was easier to source general population data rather than youth specific data in each of the SADC countries. Some of these countries may keep records of age-segregated information, however these are not easily accessible from outside of these countries. This suggests that there is a need for advocacy on knowledge development on issues affecting youth. Information keeping and knowledge development on youth issues are major factors that determine successful advocacy and lobbying. In the absence of this information youth practitioners’ advocacy and youth development initiatives may be limited. Information keeping and knowledge development on youth issues is a responsibility of all stakeholders, be they government, the civil sector and multilateral agencies. Therefore, various stakeholders should explore various methods of information keeping.

Introduction

Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975 but has been embroiled in civil war since then. The civil war has contributed to the devastation of Angola’s economic and social infrastructure. The civil war has also undermined data-bases in Angola, making it difficult to find information about the state of youth in that country.

Definition of Youth

Because no Angola-specific definition of youth was found, this report makes use of the UN definition of 15 - 24 years.

Literacy Rate

In 1998, the literacy rate of the adult population (15 years and over) was estimated to be between 30% and 42%, with male literacy being higher (56%) than the female literacy rate (28%) (INE; CIA 1998).

Years of Compulsory Education

Angola has an eight-year compulsory system of free, basic education for children between the ages 7 and 15 years with 4 years each for primary and secondary school and an optional 2 extra years for secondary school. The economic crisis in Angola has adversely affected enrolment rates; the length and quality of education. Less than 50% of eligible children, especially girls, are enrolled in school and very few children complete more than four years of education. The quality of education has also been compromised by poor and damaged infrastructure, understaffing and the tendency to send children to informal and cheaper schools.

Skills Training available to Youth

Angola has at least 3 skills training centres offering practical skills and small enterprise development to landmine victims, and a regional programme for employment and vocational training promotion.

Impact of Education on Employability

The state of the country’s education system seems to have created a situation where it is no longer able to teach the skills which are needed, particularly in the oil, textiles and clothing, tyre and cement sectors which are the main focus of the manufacturing industry.

Employability

No data was available on employability.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

In 1985 Angolan youth formed 30% of the 5 million employed (ILO). A recent SADC statistic (2000) indicates that the unemployment rate in Angola stood at 31.1%. Youth are likely to be based in the informal and agricultural sectors, as 85% of the labour force is in this sector (ILO Genderstats). Additionally, during the civil war youth were an important source of labour in the lucrative illegal diamond trade.

What affects levels of Employment?

There was no data available referring to the factors that influence levels of employment.

Historical Trends in Youth (un) employment

Information on the historical trends in youth (un)employment was unavailable.

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

The oil and services sectors contribute the most to the GDP, while the agricultural and industrial sectors employ the most number of people. Given that the fishing and oil sectors have been the least affected by the civil war, they have the potential to form the most lucrative sources of employment for youth in which a comprehensive education and skills transfer drive would be necessary.

Types of Youth Employment

While information was available on the major economic sectors in terms of output and employment, information on the types of youth employment was unavailable.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

In 1999, UNAIDS and WHO estimated an HIV/AIDS prevalence of 2.78%, while UNAIDS estimated an increase to 5.5% in 2002. Fifteen thousand people were estimated to have died from HIV-related illnesses in 1999 (UNAIDS).

Youth HIV/AIDS Prevalence

HIV prevalence rate was estimated at 1% for male youth and 3% for female youth in 1999, increasing to between 4% and 7% for male youth and 1.6% and 3% for female youth by 2002.

Knowledge About HIV/AIDS prevention amongst Youth

According to UNICEF, there is very low awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention amongst the Angolan population. This is perhaps evidenced by Angola’s high prevalence of teenage pregnancies. Youth AIDS is actively promoting HIV/AIDS awareness in Angola.

Impact HIV/AIDS on Employment

No data was available regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on employment. It is known, however, that HIV strikes the economically active population the hardest – even though Angola’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rates are still relatively low.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

The legacy of the civil war has disrupted all spheres of social life and economic life. Impoverishment, displacement, disability and the lack of infrastructure (health, education etc) are some of the challenges facing youth. The government is currently implementing a Global Social Reintegration Programme (PGDR) worth an estimated US$ 231 for ex-UNITA rebel soldiers and their families.

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Although in 1999 the Angolan government announced its intention of drafting a state youth policy, there is nothing to indicate that it has been drafted or implemented. Sectoral policies on education, culture and education, in which youth could be incorporated, do however exist.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

Data not available

How Successfully have they been Implemented

Data not available

Conclusion

Angola is faced with re-integrating child soldiers back into the community. As one of Africa’s poorest countries Angola has to transform its fisheries, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. Since the country is wealthy in diamonds it has the opportunity to transform its mineral wealth into real economic growth like Botswana.

Introduction

Botswana is currently ruled by system of multi-party democracy and has remained peaceful since its independence in 1966. The Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) is the ruling party after winning 54.3% of the vote in 1999. The next democratic elections will be held in 2004. Despite having maintained of the world’s highest economic growth rates, 44% of the Botswana’s population still live below the poverty line, and has a very high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.

Definition of Youth

In 1995, the youth definition in Botswana was defined as 12-29 years.

Literacy Rate

General literacy rate was 68.9% in 1993, in which male literacy was significantly higher (70.3%) than female literacy (66.9%) (CSO Literacy Survey). In 2000, youth literacy rate was estimated at 88.3% (UN).

Years of Compulsory Education

Botswana has free and compulsory primary education for children aged 7-14 years and aims for universal basic education of 10 years. Primary school enrolment rates were much higher (115%) than tertiary level enrolment rates - 4.9% (CSO).

Skills Training available to Youth

Botswana has a number of skills training available to youth. There are 46 Vocational Training Centres offering training in business skills, social care, construction and decoration, information and communication technology, among other areas (Ministry of Finance and Development Planning: Budget speech, 1999). Botswana is planning to align training with country’s critical sectors such as manufacturing and industry.

Impact of Education on Employability

The Population Project estimates that the size of the more-educated labour force is growing and the less educated labour force is decreasing. The Population Project also suggests that there is a mismatch between the skills needed in the economy and the skills produced by the education system. They suggest that in the 1990s there were a significant number of people in the labour force with secondary education who held unskilled jobs. Youth also identified language skills as important for functioning in the workplace (CSO: Literacy Survey: 1993).

Employability

Data not available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployment

In 1985 youth labour force participation of those aged 15-19 years was 46.1% and 78.2% for the 20-24 year olds, these statistics decreased to 29.4% for 15-19 year group and 66.8% for 20-24 year group in 1991 (CSO: Population and Housing Census). Another source stated that youth employment was 16% (YES2002). BIDPA states that youth unemployment was as high as 52% in 1994 (Junior Achievement Botswana).

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

While data on youth part/full time employment was unavailable, there are indications that youth unemployment has worsened in Botswana.

Type of Youth Employment

Data not available.

What affects levels of Employment?

Two factors may contribute to youth unemployment, in that Botswana’s education policy may not match the employment needs of the country and there are low levels of enrolment at university level.

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

While the mining and the tourism sectors contribute the most to the GDP at 34.2% and 15.9% respectively, the agriculture and livestock and the services sectors employ the largest number of people, at 43%and 52% respectively (LFS 1993/94).

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

HIV prevalence rate among the general population was 19% (UNDP Botswana).

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

While youth-specific HIV/AIDS prevalence statistics were unavailable, 20% of youth are not using contraceptives putting them at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS and STIs (BOPA). About 3 out of 10 adolescents live with HIV and half of all new infections are among teenagers (AllAfrica). Adolescent girls’ infection rates are also higher than young male infection rates.  Additional data on the impact of HIV/AIDS on employment was unavailable.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

No data available, but HIV/AIDS is considered a threat to Botswana’s economic gains.

Knowledge about HIVAIDS Prevention amongst Youth

Although there are clinics run by UNIDEF and UNFPA offering information on HIV/AIDS and treatment of STIs, the UNDP reports that 60% of youth do not have access to reproductive health and family planning. Furthermore other research suggests that there is “little hard evidence” to show that school-based HIV/AIDS education has had a major impact on sexual behaviour (University of Sussex).

Key Challenges Facing Youth

Some of the key challenges facing Botswana youth are the effect of HIV/AIDS, unemployment and teenage pregnancy, which was 19% (UNDP). Other challenges include alcohol and drug abuse and practices of unsafe sex (IRIN news 4 July 2003).

Policies which affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Policies that affect youth are the Vision 2016, the National Development Plan for Youth (ND7), Culture Policy and Sport Policy, National Youth Policy (UNDP Botswana), Youth Charter: 2002 (Friedrich Ebert Stiftung: FES international).

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

According to the Minister of Labour and Home Affairs (1994), the National Development Plan (NDP 7) recognizes the need to slow down the rate of population growth in order to cater for the youth in terms of education, health and other amenities, as well as to provide meaningful employment.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

Although Botswana’s economy has been steadily increasing over the last 2 decades, not all of its policies have promoted human growth and development. The shortcomings of current labour market policies, the slow pace of reform of state-owned enterprises, and the large-size and unstable growth of Government have contributed to 44% of the population living below the poverty line. Furthermore, Botswana has to deal with youth unemployment and the rapid increase in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS which may have a substantial implication for progress in developing its human capital and improving productivity (World Bank Group 2000). In terms of skills training available to youth, it seems that the vocational and training centres are popular, since 9 609 students enrolled in 1999 (CSO).

Conclusion

Botswana has an opportunity to extend its successful economic growth to the development and sustainability of youth.

 

Introduction

Years of civil war and corruption have badly damaged the DRC’s economy and infrastructure (US Dept 2003). In 2002 a peace agreement was reached between the government, rebel groups and neighbouring governments. Despite this agreement the conflict continues in parts of the DRC. As a result, very little information is available about youth in this country, and those figures that are available should be treated with caution.

Definition of Youth

There does not appear to be an official definition of youth in the DRC. However, it is known that in the DRC children aged 16 or above can be sentenced to death, and child civilians and child soldiers are brought before military courts (UNHCHR, 2001).

Literacy Rate

The UNDP estimates that the literacy rate has increased from 41% in 1985 to 61% in 2000. The female illiteracy rate is high, especially in rural areas. Youth literacy (15-24 years) was approximately 82% (UNDP).

Years of Compulsory Education

School is compulsory for children between 6 and 11, but attendance is estimated to be below 75%. Only about 40% of children complete this compulsory period (ISS, 2003). Secondary education is not compulsory and begins at age 12 for six years. Enrolment in secondary school is even lower at 25%, and this is mainly due to the conflict in the DRC. The school enrolment rate for girls is particularly low and the Red Cross/Red Crescent estimates that the drop out rate for girls is as high as 46% (2002).

Skill Training available to Youth

This data was unavailable.

Impact of Education on Employability

This data was not available

Employability

Information on the levels of youth employability was unavailable.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

It is difficult to obtain up to date, reliable statistics regarding youth unemployment or economic activity in the DRC. According to the UN, almost half of youth aged 15-19 years (male: 53%, female: 45%), and 73% of youth aged 20-24 years (male: 88%, female: 57%) were economically active in 1985. Overall it is estimated that youth aged 15-24 years made up 29% of the labour force in 1985, with far more males (20%) than females (9%).

Types of Youth Employment

The conflict in the DRC has in a strange way provided ‘employment’ for millions of young people. As soldiers in various armies, they received food or pay in exchange for their labour. However, the recent cessation of conflict has released numerous young jobseekers into the labour market, many of whom lack the skills or attitude required for employment. The reintegration of child soldiers into society is another challenge in the DRC.

What Affects levels of Employment?

Although no data was available, it is likely that the civil war and corruption adversely affect youth employment.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

Specific data was not available, although the Democratic Republic of the Congo has one of the richest reserves of natural resources in the world, but the economy has declined drastically since the mid-1980s due to economic mismanagement and the on-going conflict in the country. The DRC is now one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 150th out of 174 with respect to income per capita (Red Cross/Red Crescent, 2002).

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

Agriculture dominates the Congolese economy, contributing roughly half of GDP (ISS, 2003). According to IMF estimates, mining contributes 8%, manufacturing just 4%, and trade and commerce 17%. Decades of state-sponsored plunder, declining infrastructure, minimal investment and almost continuous conflict since 1996 have led to a steep decline in production. The country cannot feed itself and is dependent on imports from neighbouring countries.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

The adult prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the DRC is currently estimated at 5% (UNAIDS, 2002). No youth-specific information is available. Although the DRC was the first African country to design and implement an HIV/AIDS programme, at present the prevention programmes are virtually non-existent. The epidemic has worsened dramatically in recent years as a result of economic crisis, conflict and related population displacements (USAID, 2002). Other factors fuelling the spread of HIV in the DRC include the movement of large numbers of refugees and soldiers, the scarcity and cost of safe blood transfusions in rural areas, a lack of counselling and testing sites, high levels of untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and low availability of condoms outside Kinshasa.

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

Data was unavailable.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

This data was unavailable.

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

Data was unavailable.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

Unemployment, the continuing conflict and the lack of resources are amongst the key challenges facing youth in the DRC.

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Policies and programmes that aim to develop and uplift youth in the DRC have been almost non-existent in recent years, and no information is available regarding such initiatives.

Details Of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

There are currently no national studies of data gathered since the beginning of the war which provide a statistical analysis of the humanitarian situation.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

This data was unavailable.

Conclusion

Joseph Kabila is the first Congolese president to make a serious attempt at serious economic reform and for the first time in several years the recorded economy is showing signs of growth. Attempts are also being made to bring an end to the war in the region, although this does not appear to have been successful as yet. As a result of the war the needs of youth have received little attention in the DRC, and youth employment programmes and skills development are virtually non-existent.

Introduction

Lesotho, a landlocked mountainous kingdom gained its independence from Britain in 1966. Lesotho has undergone political instability since 1965. The kingdom currently has a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The country held elections in 2002, and the Electoral Institute of South Africa deemed them credible, free and fair. Despite this, the opposition continues to boycott government sponsored events.

Definition of Youth

Lesotho seems to operate with three youth definitions. The National Youth Policy, UNAIDS and WHO operate with the 10-24 years age definition, while a youth related government department uses the 10-35 years definition. A youth expert (Mkandawire) states that Lesotho’s youth definition is 12-35 years.

Literacy Rate

Youth literacy (15-24 years) increased from 85.1% in 1985 to 90.5% in 2000 (EAC).

Years of Compulsory Education

 Lesotho has compulsory primary education for children aged 6-12 years with only 68.1% enrolment rate.

Skills Training Available to Youth

As the only university, the National University of Lesotho has an average yearly attendance of 1,400 students.  There are 4 vocational and 3 technical schools in Lesotho. One of these schools offers both technical and vocational training. The total enrolment rate at technical and vocational schools in Lesotho is 1, 859. There is a renewed strategic plan has been focused on consolidating education sectors in order to increase the number of enrolment and the quality of education.

Impact of Education on Employability

Data not available.

Employability

Data was not available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

Governmental estimates of youth unemployment range between 44% and 65%-70% (Ministry of Environment, Youth and Gender).

Types of Youth Employment

Data unavailable.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

Although no youth specific data was available, the unemployment rate appears to have decreased since 1997, as it was registered at 34.2% inclusive of migrant labour.

 Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment

Of the 72.7% economically active, 8.1% worked for government, 1.8% worked for parastatals and 21.5% work in the private sector (LFS 1999/00). Given that the Lesotho’s economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture and livestock about 68.6% of those employed are involved in subsistence farming.

What affects levels of Employment?

Data not available 

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

Ranked as the fourth worst hit country, HIV/AIDS is the largest health threat for Lesotho. In 1999 the HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate was 23.57% with an estimated 240 000 living with HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

The HIV/AIDS youth prevalence rate (15-24 years) was estimated at 24.75%-51.4% for women and 11.31%-23.49% for males (UNAIDS 2002).

 Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment

Data not available.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

According to CARE it is common amongst the youth in Lesotho to have multiple partners. Despite information on HIV/AIDS many people still practice unprotected sex. The use of contraceptives also appears to be low as 52% of young women have children before reaching the age of 19. While the government has prioritized HIV/AIDS and STD education, a private sector coalition aimed at the prevention rather than treatment of HIV/AIDS was launched in 2002. The coalition comprised of the association of Lesotho Employers, CARE and International Organization for Migration. UNDP in collaboration with UNDP will support the formation, functioning and expansion of youth networks to further advocacy on HIV/AIDS and inculcate youth with prevention and management of the disease.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

HIV/AIDS, unemployment and high level of drug and alcohol abuse are the main concerns of Basotho youth.

Policies which affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

The ministry of Gender, Youth and Sports handles socio-economic issues facing youth. This ministry coordinates the National Youth Policy of Lesotho in cooperation with other youth-serving ministries and youth organizations (UN). Further information on the National Youth Policy was unavailable. The Lesotho Youth Federation, an umbrella body for youth organizations and clubs is another organization focusing on youth related issues.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

In 1998, a National Employment Policy was adopted. The policy was aimed at promoting full productive and freely chosen employment and providing skill and knowledge for the work force. The National Environment Youth Corps project aimed to create employment opportunities for youth through training on environmental management and rehabilitation. The government set itself millennium goals of eradicating poverty, achieving primary education, promoting gender equality, improving mental health and fighting HIV/AIDS. It is still pursuing the achievement of these goals.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

Further information on these policies and programmes was unavailable.

Conclusion

Challenges faced by youth such as youth unemployment, the prevalence of youth HIV/AIDS which is exacerbated by the unchanging sexual behavior amongst the youth can be overcome by clear youth policies and a stable political environment.

Introduction

The Republic of Malawi is currently a democratic state, ruled by a multi-party system consisting of a total of four political parties under the presidency of Dr. Baliki Muluzi, after being colonised for 73 years and ruled by a dictatorship until the early 1990’s. Malawi is a very small country with a very large population. About 65.3% of Malawi’s population live below poverty line making it one of Africa’s poorest countries (Population Census).

Definition of Youth

The Malawi National Youth Policy defines youth as those between the ages of 14-30 years and in some cases this is extended to 35 years. However, the UN definition (15-24 years) is also often used.

Literacy Rate

The total population’s literacy rate was 58% in which female literacy was significantly lower (43.4%) than male literacy (72.8%) in 1999 (CIA). In 1998, youth literacy (15-24 years) was 82.1% for males and 70.7% for females (NSO).

Years of Compulsory Education

According to the Malawian government, the education system consists of 8 years of schooling, 4 years each for both primary and secondary school, and it is compulsory for those aged 6-14 years. The net enrolment rate at primary was 65.7%, while the gross enrolment rates were 16% at secondary level and only 0.6% at university level (NSO). Malawi has very high drop out rates, YES estimates that about 500 000 young people dropout of school or fail their examinations.

Skills Training available to Youth

Malawi has 4 000 primary schools, 70 858 secondary schools, 108 846 distance education centres and two universities. There was no clear information on the skills training available to youth, although it seems youth have access to various training programmes on HIV/AIDS, life skills and entrepreneurship. There have been programmes set up to provide staff with re-training, job counselling and entrepreneurship training. Many youth are not formally employed which means that few are beneficiaries of these kinds of training programmes.

Impact of Education on Employability

Data on the impact of education on employability was limited, although there are indications that poor education, particularly in the rural areas limits employability (ActionAid). Furthermore, females with secondary education are generally more employable (Kamkondo 1994).

Employability

Data was unavailable.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

In 1998, the economic activity of the 15-19 years age group was 36.8% in which female economic activity was higher (43.5%) than male economic activity (29.3%). The economic activity of the 20-24 years age group was 72.8%. In the 20-24 years age group, young women’s economic activity still surpassed young men’s at 74.5% compared to 71.1% for men.

Types of Youth Employment

No youth specific data was available regarding sectors in which youth were economically active or employed.

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

Given that information on youth sector employment was unavailable, it can be argued that employed youth are in the agricultural sector. Three major industries that contribute to the GDP were agriculture (40%), the services industry slightly higher at 41% and the industrial sector contributing 19%. While the industrial and services sector were amongst the leading sectors contributing to the GDP, these sectors had much lower employment rates compared to the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector accounted for 86.64% of those employed, while the services and industrial sectors contributed 8.44% and 4.92% respectively.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

No information was obtainable on the historical trends of youth employment, although the NSO describes the Malawian labour market as characterised by single gender mobility and high levels of unemployment.

What Affects levels of Employment

ActionAid reports that various factors affect the general population’s employment levels. These range from natural disasters such as droughts and floods to lack of access to education, public transport and access to markets.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

The Malawian National Aids Commission estimated that HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 14-59 year age group was 14%. The urban HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is higher at 30% compared to the 10% in the rural areas.

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

In 1997, youth HIV/AIDS prevalence rate was 13% (NACP). UNAIDS estimates that young men’s HIV prevalence rate was 5.08%-7.68%, while young women’s prevalence estimates are higher, at 11.91%-17.87%. Age among women is another factor that determines HIV infection or risk. Teenage women’s HIV incidence was 6% compared to women over 35 where it was only 1%.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

It is projected that by 2005, 25% and as much as 50% of people currently employed in the urban based sectors would have died of AIDS. FAO also predicted that smallholder agriculture would be particularly vulnerable to the effect of HIV/AIDS (Policy Project 2000).

Knowledge about HIVAIDS Prevention amongst Youth

The KAPB survey was conducted in Malawi exploring youth’s HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, practice and behaviour. However the survey data was not accessible.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

There are a number or challenges facing Malawian youth. These range from unemployment and underemployment, lack of vocational training, sexual harassment to HIV/AIDS and STDs, drug and alcohol abuse, teenage pregnancy and early marriage.

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Malawi’s National Youth Policy aims to address youth unemployment, educational opportunities, youth non-involvement in decision making, youth crime and deviance, teenage pregnancy and drug and alcohol abuse. Other issues covered in the policy are high population growth rates and the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Another policy geared to have a positive effect on youth was the Universal Free Primary School Education Policy.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

The National Youth Policy offers guidelines of action on the following areas; education, training and empowerment, science and technology and environment, population, health and nutrition and social services and recreation, sports and culture. SEDOM and the Youth Department have worked together to develop entrepreneurship training material as well as provide financial assistance for business. This programme is facilitated through the Malawi Youth Development and Credit Scheme.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

While there was information available on Malawi’s National Youth Policy, further information on its implementation was unavailable.

Conclusion

The majority of Malawians are employed in the agricultural sector, but government expenditure is only 15%. The government is currently formulating and implementing a strategy aimed at increasing crop production. Apart from its agricultural sector, Malawi has the potential to expand its mining sector as the country has rich reserves of unexploited uranium, coal and bauxite. Malawi’s economic outlook 2003 is mixed as it faces difficult agricultural conditions and low investment, but should gain relief through HIPC.

Introduction

Mauritius is an independent island republic with a democratic government and gained independence from Britain in 1968. Mauritian territory is made up of the island of Mauritius as well as the island of Rodrigues to the east, two tiny dependencies to the north, and some twenty uninhabited islands just off the coast.

Definition of Youth

The Mauritian government defines youth as all male and female persons aged between 14 and 29 years living in the Republic of Mauritius (National Youth Policy, 1998). 

Literacy Rate

Mauritius has one of the highest literacy rates in Africa. According to the Mauritian Central Statistical Office, 85% of those aged fifteen and above were literate in 2002 (males: 89%, females: 82%).

Years of Compulsory Education

Mauritius’s high literacy rate is partly attributable to the fact that education in Mauritius is free at all levels from pre-primary school to university. Formal instruction at primary school level (standard 1 – 6) is compulsory. Secondary level is not compulsory and consists of six years of instruction (forms 1-6). In form 5 students take the School Certificate exam, and those who pass take the Higher School Certificate exam in form 6.

Skills Training available to Youth

In terms of skills training available to youth, a comprehensive network of vocational training institutes is coordinated by the Industrial and Vocational Training Board (IVTB). A Training Advisory Committee (TAC) has been set up in the IVTB to formulate and implement training programmes based on the requirements of industries. The IVTB operates the School of Electronics in collaboration with Siemens to train technicians in the electrical and electronic sectors. Other IVTB schools include a school of jewellery, printing and footwear and leathercraft. In addition, the IVTB operates 14 other centres which provide training courses in the fields of engineering, precision plastics, design, textiles, hotel and tourism, hydraulics, plumbing, electrical installation, management, carpentry, metal and wood machining. A further 60 private training institutions are registered under the IVTB to cater for training needs in areas such as agriculture, engineering, hotel and tourism, information technology, management, office skills and textiles.

Impact of Education on Employability

No data was available on the impact of education on employability.

Employability

Data unavailable.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

Youth make up approximately 23% of the labour force (UN, 1994). In the 15-19 year age group, 63% of male youth and 81% of female youth are economically inactive (usually because they are involved in further studies). However, these numbers drop substantially in the 20-24 year age group, where only 14% of male youth and 49% of female youth economically inactive (Central Statistical Office, 2003). In the 25-29 year age group, only 4% of males are economically inactive, compared to 45% of women. A large disparity exists between economically active males and females, but this is not the case with employment rates (CSO, 2003). Of youth aged 15-24 years, 78.4% of males and 77.6% of females are employed (UN, 1995).

Types of Youth Employment

Data not available.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

No data was available on historical trends in youth employment and unemployment.

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

The principal sectors are manufacturing, tourism, textile and sugar cane processing. The agricultural and manufacturing industries are important in Mauritius, but the tourism and textiles industries now make up the bulk of the country’s income. Other industries include food processing (largely sugar milling), chemicals, metal products, transport equipment and non-electrical machinery.

What affects Levels of Employment?

There was not data available on levels of youth employment.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

According to the UNAIDS Epidemiological Fact Sheet (2002), the adult prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Mauritius is 0.1%. An estimated 700 adults (15-49 years) were living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2001, and fewer than 100 children (0-15 years) were estimated to be infected.

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

Due to the low numbers on general population HIV/AIDS prevalence, there are no youth-specific figures available.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

The low prevalence of HIV in Mauritius means that the epidemic has not had a dramatic effect on the Mauritian economy, but the movement of both Mauritians and foreign tourists in and out of the country may change this and highlights the need for continued prevention programmes.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

The first case of HIV-AIDS was registered in Mauritius in 1987, and in the same year the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life implemented a National AIDS Control and Prevention Programme. A mother to child transmission programme was established in 1998, and a protocol has been established for HIV positive pregnant women to be provided with antiretroviral treatment (AZT) during pregnancy and delivery.

 Key Challenges Facing Youth

Mauritius is probably the only SADC country for which information on the key challenges facing youth was unavailable.

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

The government has developed a national youth policy, which is coordinated by the Ministry of Youth and Sports in cooperation with other youth serving ministries and youth organizations. The youth policy identifies 5 priority target groups, namely in school and out of school youth, unemployed youth, underprivileged youth and youth at risk. Strategic areas such as employment, education and training are included.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

A National Youth Council has been established to facilitate networking between all youth groups and agencies concerned with the young. The Council also links government and young people and facilitates resource mobilisation.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

Further information relating to the extent of youth policy implementation was not available.

Conclusion

Since gaining independence, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculturally based economy to a middle-income diversified economy with growing industrial, financial, and tourist sectors. This remarkable achievement has been reflected in more equitable income distribution, increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality, and a much improved infrastructure. The skills training available to youth on hotel and tourism, as well as training in engineering fields should assist youth in undertaking economic activities in metal and chemical processing, which form some of the key sectors in Mauritius.

Introduction

Shortly after gaining independence from Portugal in 1975 Mozambique was plunged into a civil war, which ended only in 1992. Ravaged by the civil war and by a severe drought followed by flooding in the South, the country’s development has been slow and patchy. Mozambique relies heavily on foreign aid, and in 2001 it was estimated that 70% of the population lived below the poverty line (CIA World Fact Book).

Definition of Youth

There are conflicting reports of Mozambique’s official definition of youth. While some sources indicate a youth definition of 14-35 years, others indicate a definition of 18-35 years. The UN definition of 15-24 years is used in international reports on Mozambique.

Literacy Rate

In 1997, around 41% of the Mozambican adult population, and 51.1% of the youth population (UN definition) were unable to read or write. Youth illiteracy rates have declined dramatically since then, standing at 39.4% in 2000, and are expected to decline further to 33.7% in 2005 (UNESCO).

Years of Compulsory Education

The Mozambican government has instituted 7 years of compulsory education for all 6 year-olds. Despite this, enrolment rates remain fairly low. In 2000/2001 only 54% of all children eligible for primary school education were enrolled in primary school (UNESCO). The civil war may account for the low enrolment ratios in Mozambique, as it left approximately two-thirds of Mozambique’s 2 million primary-school age children without classrooms (ILO).

Skills Training Available to Youth

The government has formed and further strengthened alliances with non-governmental organizations in order to alleviate unemployment. Relevant programmes include the Iniciativa Jovem, which provides training and basic education to excluded youth in Maputo and other priority regions around the country. This programme identified the burgeoning tourist industry as an ideal point entry point for youth employment and non-formal education. The Peace Education Project targets a much larger group of disadvantaged youth, including former child soldiers. These projects provide sector-specific numeracy and literacy skills, as well as manual crafts and skills to disadvantaged youth.

Impact of Education on Employability

The above described initiatives allowed youth to participate in the popular economy which accounts for 43% of the Mozambican economy. It is estimated that from 1992 to 1998, 2 200 women and adolescent girls received basic training in literacy, technical skills and small credit for production activities (Youth at the UN).

Employability

No information was available on youth employability.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

In 2000 it was estimated that 75.78% of youth were economically active (ILO). Youth thus formed around 27.6% of the economically active population.

Types of Youth Employment

No data available.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)Employment

Data was unavailable.

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

Agricultural sector was the major economic sector by employment, employing 91.3% of economically active women and 69.6% of economically active men (Instituto de Estatisticas). After agriculture, the main sectors of employment were services (13%) and industry (6%). The services sector contributes the largest share to the GDP, (42%), followed by agriculture (33%) and industry (25%).

What affects Levels of Employment

Data was not available.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

In 2001, about 13% of the adult population was infected with HIV (UNAIDS).

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

Youth HIV/AIDS prevalence rate was between 10.5% and 18.7% for females and 4.4% and 7.8% for males (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa). Furthermore, UNICEF estimates that 45% of new infections occur in youth aged below 24 years.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

No data was available.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

Research shows that while 50% of the female population and 76% of the male population knew about condoms, only 2% of females and 10% of males reported using one the last time they had sexual intercourse (Libombo, A. and Ustam, M. B. 2001).

Key Challenges Facing Youth

Key challenges facing youth revolve around post-war reconstruction of Mozambique’s social and economic infrastructure and combating the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS amongst the youth. The under-resourced Mozambican government has been unable to undertake major interventions in these areas, and development has been driven by community-based organisations, such as Kindlimuka.

Policies which affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Within the government, the Ministry of Culture and Youth coordinates the National Youth Policy, in cooperation with other youth-serving ministries and youth organisations. The National Youth Policy focuses on forming collaborative relationships with youth organisations to address problems facing the youth.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

Mozambique has a national youth programme of action, which emphasises partnerships with civil society organisations as a means of addressing the social problems of the youth. Its focus areas include education, community life and policy and legislation.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

The Red Cross has successfully engaged 4 000 youth volunteers and 280 youth leaders in activities involving environmental education and landmine awareness. Various programmes are working to reintegrate child soldiers into the community.

Conclusion

Mozambique has been devastated by floods and a civil war, and remains dependent on foreign assistance for much of its annual budget. Improvements in its educational and health systems are imperative to produce a skilled labour force and stop the increasing rate of HIV/AIDS. Education and skills development should be aligned with sectors such as the services and industrial sectors. Further training is agricultural skills is needed, as this sector still forms the predominant sector of employment and contributes a large part to the country’s GDP.

Introduction

Namibia is a former German colony which was annexed by South Africa after World War II. In 1988 South Africa agreed to end its administration and the first democratic elections were held in 1990. Namibia is a comparatively peaceful country with a small, scattered population.

Definition of Youth

There does not appear to be a clear official definition of youth in Namibia. Some define youth as 15 – 30 years, but the UN definition of youth (15 – 24 years) is also commonly used.

Literacy Rate

The literacy rate in Namibia has risen from 57% in 1970 to 82% in 2000. Literacy rates amongst youth aged 15 – 24 years have also increased, but the gender disparity in this age group has remained relatively constant. In 2000 the literacy rate for youth was 90% for males and 93% for females (UNESCO).

Years of Compulsory Education

Namibia has instituted 10 years of compulsory schooling for children starting from the age of six. However, the net enrolment ratio for Namibian primary schools is relatively low at 82% for the year 2000/2001. The enrolment ratio for secondary schools (38%) was substantially lower for the same year, indicating that the implementation of compulsory education has been problematic. At all levels of education the enrolment rates are higher for females than males.

Skills Training Available to Youth

In 1994 the Namibian government passed the National Vocational Training Act to address the development of apprenticeships as well as institutional, community and industry based training. Soon after this a National Vocational Training Board was established to advise the government on issues pertaining to vocational education and training. In addition, a Namibia Training and Testing Centre (NTTC) was established to set standards for the vocational centres. At present there are five registered vocational training centres offering 16 technical trades and 5 commercial, hospitality and craft trades. The two qualifications available at these centres are the National Vocational Certificate and the National Vocational Diploma. There are also 7 Community Skills Development Centres (COSDECs) which cater for community training needs. These COSDECs are run by communities and coordinated by the government.

Impact of Education on Employability

No data available.

Employability

This data was not available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

Youth formed approximately 42% of those unemployed in 2000 (ILO). In the same year, a higher proportion of male than female youth were economically active (male youth: 64%, female youth: 42%).

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

There has also been a decline in the rate of economically active youth in recent years. In 1990, 56% of youth were economically active, but by 2000 this number had decreased to 53% and is expected to decline further to 51% by 2010 (ILO).

Types of Youth Employment

Data was not available.

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment

The Namibian economy is heavily dependent on the mining of non-fuel minerals such as diamonds, gold, copper, lead and zinc for export. However, the mining sector employs only 3% of the population and half of the population depends on subsistence agriculture for its livelihood. The services sector contributes to 61% of the GDP, followed by the industrial (28%) and agricultural (11%) sectors. Agriculture accounts for 47% of employment, while services account for 33% and industry the remaining 20% (CIA, 2000).

What Affects levels of Employment

Data not available.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

Namibia had an HIV prevalence of 22% in 2002, making it one of the four worst affected countries in the world (UNAIDS).

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

The HIV prevalence for youth was estimated to be between 19% and 29% for females, and lower for males at between 9% and 13% (UN Economic Commission for Africa). According to the Ministry of Health and Social Services (2001), HIV/AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Namibia.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

Data unavailable.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

General awareness of the issues surrounding HIV/AIDS appears to be fairly low amongst Namibian youth. A study of Windhoek youth aged 15 – 25 years in 2003 found that common HIV prevention terms are misunderstood and that youth are afraid or unwilling to discuss condoms use. A similar study by the University of Namibia and USAID revealed that 60% of youth aged 15-25 years in Windhoek believed that they would become infected in the next year. To address the issue of HIV prevention amongst youth, the government has collaborated with other organizations to develop My Future Is My Choice. This programme aims to provide young people with information and life skills to prevent HIV infection.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

The IPPR Youth and Politics Survey 2000 found that the main concerns of Namibian youth were unemployment (69%), HIV (32%), crime (25%), poverty (19%), and health (14%). 

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

According to the UN, the Ministry of Youth and Sports coordinates the National Youth Policy of Namibia in cooperation with other youth-serving ministries and youth organizations. However, this information appears to be outdated as the Ministry of Youth and Sports no longer appears on the government’s list of ministries. No further information could be found on the National Youth Policy.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

In terms of other youth initiatives, Namibia has established the Namibia Youth Employment Summit (YES) Network. The objective is to bring together youth-led and youth-serving organisations and to disseminate information.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

Further information on the National Youth Policy and related programmes was unavailable. There were however some projects, such as the Youth Employment Summit (YES) network but this has only recently been undertaken.

Conclusion

Namibia is another SADC country that has rich reserves of minerals, such as diamonds, copper and lead. The mining sector has the potential to be a leading economic sector for youth. Linking entrepreneurial skills development to this sector would provide Namibian youth an opportunity to exploit a potentially wealthy sector.

 

On the weekend of 5th/6th July 2003, the government of the Seychelles announced that they had withdrawn from the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) and closed down the diplomatic missions in London, Kuala Lumpur and Pretoria. The main reasons for these decisions are apparently the cost of maintaining missions abroad and high annual membership fees. The Seychelles apparently feel that SADC membership is costing them a lot of money, but that they see little in return.

 

“We have found out that our best interests are not served by being a member of SADC. We have carried out a cost analysis to find out what it is that Seychelles or its people derive from being a member of SADC and we failed to see the benefits of being a member of SADC. Frankly for the money, the time and the effort invested so far in SADC, we have not seen a return on our investment. However, we believe and maintain that SADC is a very good organisation for the African continent but it may not serve the interests of Seychelles as a small island state.” Mr. Butler-Payette, Permanent Secretary, Seychelles

Introduction

After decades of apartheid rule, South Africa instituted a democratic government in 1994. Currently, South Africa has a multi-party democracy, and holds elections every five years. South Africa is considered one of the most stable countries in Africa and has good prospects for successful economic and social development. Despite this, the country must overcome the legacy of apartheid in which more than 50% of the population live below the poverty line.

Definition of Youth

South Africa has two operating youth definitions; the first definition of 14-35 years was instituted in 1996 through the National Youth Policy. The second definition of 15-28 years was instituted by the Youth Development Framework to set the parameters of beneficiaries for youth programmes.

Literacy Rate

Literacy rates for the year 2002 were reported as 91.3% (Human Development Report) and 85% (CIA World Fact Book). Although dated, the UN indicates that youth literacy was 86.8% in 1985. According to the education policy in South Africa young children are expected to attend school for a period of 6 to 15 years.

Skills Training available to Youth

South Africa has a number of 25 Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) intended to provide training to the general population. The SETAs are responsible for developing and implementing learnership programmes in areas ranging from banking, food, police, and security to wholesale and retail. This training is intended to prepare South Africans for employment or self-employment. By May 2002, 7,700 youth were enrolled in the SETAs.

Impact of Education on Employability

A number of factors contribute to whether a young person can secure employment. For example, the lack of work experience and the need for skilled labour force in the market contribute to whether a young person can secure employment. The Youth 2000 study indicates that 73% of those with no education are unemployed, compared to 68% of those with secondary education and 58% of those with matric. Youth unemployment is lowest amongst those with a post-matric education (27%), which indicates that unemployment levels tend to decrease with better education.

Employability

No data was available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

Three sources dated between 1996 to 2000 indicate that youth unemployment is high in South Africa. In 1996, 30% of youth aged 15-35 years were employed and 20.7% were unemployed (Census 1996). In 1999, youth comprised 70% of the unemployed, and 46% of the working population and 33% of the self-employed (OHS 1999). In 2000, 52% of the economically active youth were unemployed (CASE 2000).

Historical Trends in Youth Unemployment

Census 1996 data indicates that the unemployment rate is higher among young women and Africans, while rural areas also tend to have higher unemployment rates than urban areas. The In terms of the age breakdown, the OHS (1999) indicates that youth unemployment is highest among the 25-29 years age group. There does not appear to have been any change in this throughout the last two decades.

Types of Youth Employment

The Youth 2000 study states that of the 79% of youth (16-35 years) that were economically active at the time of the study, 52% were unemployed (expanded definition), 35% were in full-time employment, 9% had part time or casual employment and 4% were self employed (CASE 2000).

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

A comparison between Census 1996 and 2001 indicates that the employment rates in the community & social services, trade and finance sectors have increased. Currently of the 9.1 million employed, 29.1% are in the community and social services, 13.7% in the trade sector and 9.4% are in the finance sector. The CIA World Fact Book shows that the services sector contributes 45% to the GDP, while agricultural and industrial sectors contribute 30% and 25% respectively (CIA World Fact Book est. 1999).

What Affects Levels of Employment

Although no specific data was available, levels of employment could be affected by geographical location, sex, age, skills and qualifications. Additional factors that could contribute to levels of employment is the structure of the labour market and policies

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

There are disparities in the reported HIV prevalence rate in South Africa. However, a South African source states that the adult population HIV infection rate stands at 11.4% (Nelson Mandela/HSRC 2002).

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

The Nelson Mandela/HSRC (002) reports a prevalence rate of 9.3% for those aged 15-24 years and 15.5% for people aged 25 and above. HIV/AIDS prevalence rates peak for women between aged 25-29 years and men 30-35 years (CARE 2002). This shows that young people are at an increased risk of contracting HIV.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

Based on Nelson Mandela/HSRC study (2002), there were no significant differences between HIV prevalence of working and non-working people. Alternatively, NMG-Levy Consultants and Actuaries (2002) report that of the 20% of the workforce is HIV positive and that 3-4% suffer from HVI/AIDS related diseases.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

While no clear information was available on youth knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, the Khomanani Campaign - caring together campaign is a broad communications campaign initiated by the Department of Health that includes information on perceptions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in SA.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

The Youth 2000 study reports that the majority of youth are concerned about unemployment (41%), while a higher proportion of youth were concerned more with crime (14%) than with HIV/AIDS (11%).

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Government has instituted a number of policies and programmes aimed job creation and poverty eradication. For example, the SMME strategy which is supported by a wide range of institutions and policies forms the main strategy for job creation and poverty eradication. Examples of human resource development policies are the Skills Development Act (1998) and the Employment Equity Act (1998). The National Skills Fund supports skills development programmes.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

National Youth Policy (1996), National Youth Policy Framework (2000) aims for the promotion of youth achievement and development, through integrated, cross-sectoral planning and service provision. The framework targets young women and men with disabilities, unemployed men and women, school aged out-of-school women and men and rural women and men.

How successfully have they been Implemented?

National Youth Policy Framework has been adopted; however, the National Youth Commission and South African Youth Council to implement policies both have limited capacity to implement these policies. For example the National Youth Service has not been implemented, although there have been 50 000 youth would be recruited for learnership programmes carried out by the SETAs. Progress in dealing with youth issues across government departments and in civil society at large, remains limited and fragmented. The Non-governmental sector seems more successful at implementing programmes.

Conclusion

As one of Africa’s fastest growing economies, South Africa has the opportunity to transform it wealth into sustainable livelihoods for its population, particularly youth. With a fairly stable democracy that is almost ten years old, South African still has to extend economic gains to the youth of the country. This can be done through extensive collaborations with various emerging sectors.

Introduction

Swaziland gained independence from Britain on 6th September 1968. Since then, it has been ruled by a hereditary monarchy, which, despite hard-won democratic reforms during the 1990s, has maintained a large degree of judicial, legislative and executive control of the country. Youth organisations continued to be active in their opposition to the prevailing political dispensation throughout the 1990s.

Definition of Youth

Youth have been defined in Swaziland as any person between the ages of 12 and 30 years. Most sources, however, use the UN definition of 15-24 years.

Literacy Rate

In 1999, 78.9% of the Swazi population could read and write. Of the entire youth population, 10.4% of males and 8.8% of females were illiterate in 2000, while by 2005 it is expected that this figure will decrease to 8.4 % of males and 6.7% of females.

Years of Compulsory Education

Swaziland legislation stipulates seven years of compulsory education (World Bank EdStats). In 2000/2001, 93% of all children eligible for primary school education were enrolled in primary schools (UNESCO).

Skills Training available to Youth

Youth who have not completed secondary education rely heavily upon the National Handicraft Training Centre to provide them with marketable skills, as the centre provides training in entrepreneurship and various handicrafts (Ministry of Enterprise and Employment). Due to limited capacity, the enrolment numbers at the centre are quite low. In 2000/01 the centre took in 146 and 150 in 2001/02 increasing to 155 for 2002/03.

Employability

This data was unavailable.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

A recent statistic indicates that in 2001 the overall unemployment rate stood at around 34% (CIA World Fact Book). In the same year, youth economic activity stood at 37% (ILO) A dated statistic indicates that in 1985, approximately 61.25% of youth were engaged in economic activity, and youth formed 25% of labour force (Youth at the UN).

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment

The services sector accounts for the major portion of Swaziland’s GDP (47%) followed by industry (43%) and agriculture (10%) with 80% of the population involved in subsistence agriculture (CIA World Fact Book). The major economic sector by paid employment is services (32.6%), followed by agriculture and forestry (21.4%) (Swaziland Central Statistical Office).

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

Data not available.

Types of Youth Employment

Data was unavailable.

What affects levels of Employment

Data not available.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

In 2002 it was estimated that approximately 35.6% of adults (aged 15+) were HIV positive (CIA World Fact Book).

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

In 2000 the overall national HIV prevalence among 15-19 year olds was 25.9% (UNAIDS). Female youth infection rate was estimated at 39.5% in 2001(World Bank).

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment

Data not available.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

General awareness amongst youth of HIV transmission can be inferred from a UNAIDS survey of the youth population. While figures for males are unavailable, the study showed that 43.1% of females aged 15-19 and 43.4% of females aged 20-24 correctly rejected the two most common misperceptions about HIV/AIDS and knew that a healthy looking person can transmit HIV.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

Youth have played an important role in hastening political reform and the extension of democratic institutions (such as universal suffrage and nominal division of powers) during the 1990s. Youth organisations continued to be active in their opposition to the prevailing political dispensation. In 2000 the 5th General Congress of the Swaziland Youth Congress (SWAYOCO), an active partner in the social movement of the 1990s, was violently broken up by the police. The government recognises the rights of national youth movements to organise on a non-governmental basis, but with the proviso that such organisations be convened for non-political purposes.

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

The Ministry of Youth co-ordinates the National Youth Policy of Swaziland in cooperation with other youth-serving ministries and the Swaziland National Youth Council (SNYC). The SNYC was founded in 1987, and has a membership consisting of 20 national youth and student organizations, including Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Red Cross Youth and Youth Relief Association. The National Youth Policy is still awaiting ratification by the Parliament (Youth at the UN).

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

Data was unavailable.

How successfully have they been Implemented?

Data was not available.

Conclusion

Swazi youth are faced with an increasingly undemocratic monarchy; youth activism is being repressed by government forces. As the above sections probably indicate, Swaziland also does not keep detailed records on the situation of youth, as most of the data was obtained from external sources. One of the factors that would contribute to sustainable youth development is a transformation in the political climate in Swaziland.

Introduction

Tanzania became a multi-party democracy in 1995 and held another round of elections in 2000, in which both elections were deemed free and fair, except in Zanzibar. The government consists of the Union Government, which has authority over the mainland Tanzania. The Zanzibar Revolutionary Government has authority over all matters which are not Union matters.

Definition of Youth

The Integrated Labour Force Survey (2000/1) adopted the UN definition of 15-24 years.

Literacy Rate

In 2000, youth literacy had increased to 81.6% from 77.4% in 1985 (Human Development Report).

Years of Compulsory Education

Tanzania has seven years of compulsory free primary education. Only less than half of eligible children enroll at schools every year and out of that number, approximately 80% complete their primary schooling.

Skills Training available to Youth

There are 53 Folk Development Colleges that offer practical skills training in domestic science, carpentry, masonry and tin smiting. Additionally, there are 19 regional training centres and 50 Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) institutions which offer training programmes to primary and secondary school leavers. Access and usage of these programmes is hindered by the lack of funds and lack of information by potential beneficiaries. Training opportunities such as computer training are also offered by private training institutions.

Impact of Education on Employability

Although academic and practical courses are offered at tertiary level, Tanzania’s agricultural economy is unable to absorb a high number of skilled workforce. The result is that learners with high school education or above are less employable than those with primary or less education. The number of unemployed youth with secondary education or higher has increased at more than twice the rate of youth with less or no education.

Employability

No data was available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

In 1998, 90% of the labour force was involved in agriculture (CIA World Fact Book). Youth aged 15-24 years represent 28% of the total labour force, and approximately 87% of this number is employed.

Types of Youth Employment

To a lesser extent, youth find employment in the private informal sector and the NGO sector. For example, 0.2% of youth work for the central or local government, 0.1% work in parastatal organizations and 3.9% of youth do house work duties (ILFS 2000/1).

Major Economic Sector by Output and Employment

While Tanzania’s agricultural sector remains the predominant sector of employment, the private formal and informal sector employment rates are increasing.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

Data was not available.

What Affects Levels of Employment

Given that rural employment levels are significantly higher than urban employment levels and that the majority of employed youth are in the private traditional agricultural sector (83%) suggests that geographical location contributes to the ability to find employment.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

HIV prevalence for the general population was estimated at 7.8% in 2001.

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

Youth HIV/AIDS prevalence rate was estimated at 6.4%-9.7% for 2002 (UNAIDS). Furthermore, youth accounted for 60% of all new HIV/AIDS infections. Despite this, youth HIV/AIDS awareness is generally good.

HIV/AIDS Impact on Employment

Information on the impact of HIV/AIDS on employment was unavailable.

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

For example, in 1996 youth had knowledge of at least two acceptable HIV preventative methods (PSI), and condom usage and sales had increased (Tanzania Demographic Health Survey 1996). Tanzania has a National AIDS Control Programme and a number of NGO’s that are active in HIV/AIDS education and information provision.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

Some of the key challenges facing Tanzanian youth are increasing rate of urbanization and HIV/AIDS, and unemployment.

Policies Which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

Tanzania has a number of youth programmes, policies and legislation that are aimed at improving youth employment. The Youth Development Fund (1994) provides revolving loans to youth in the informal sector in order to create self-employment.  Another fund, the National Entrepreneurship Development Fund (1993/4), offers financial support to youth farmers and livestock keepers since agriculture remains the main source of income-generating projects for the youth. Foreign funders are also active in youth employment creation initiatives.

Details of Youth Specific or Youth Related Policies

The National Employment Policy of 1997 advocates strategic employment promotion, and the creation of an enabling environment for the private sector, NGO’s and CBO’s to effectively participate in employment promotion. In addition, the National Employment Policy of 2000 functions as a guiding framework that advocates for gender equality in employment and the creation of sustainable and productive employment that would lead to poverty eradication.

 

The National Employment Promotion Services Act of 1999 and Vision 2025 are also policies geared at increasing youth employment. The National Employment Promotion Act provides employment placement through employment promotion agencies. Other focus areas of the Act are; self employment, vocational guidance and counseling and the provision of labour market and occupational information. Self-employment provision also forms the main focus of Vision 2025, which amongst other aims emphasizes high quality education that would complement the developmental needs of the country.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

Although detailed information was found on youth policies, there was no data on the extent to which these policies and programmes have been successful.

Conclusion

The Tanzanian government has the responsibility to curb political instability and forcefully implement some of the progressive youth policies and programmes. The focus on youth entrepreneurships must be complemented with a good education. The country’s education policy needs to be translated into high enrolment rates of young people.

Introduction

Zambia obtained its independence from Britain in 1964 and was under a system of 1-party rule for the next 27 years. In 1991, Zambia held its first multi-party elections in 1991. Subsequent elections were held in 1996 and 2001, both won by the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy.

Definition of Youth

Zambia seems to operate with three youth definitions; 13-19 years, the UN definition of 15-24 years and the 15-25 years definition. The latter is used by some governmental institutions.

Literacy Rate

Youth literacy rate (15-24years) increased from 77.2% in 1985 to 88.2% in 2000 (UN 2001).

Years of Compulsory Education

Despite an impressive literacy rate, the Zambian education system has deteriorated over the last two decades. Zambia has 7 years of compulsory primary school education which is set to increase to 9 years by 2015. The implementation of this policy is hindered by problems such as low learner enrolment and the lack of proper educational resources (USAID). Other challenges include inaccessibility of schools, outdated curriculums and high drop-out rates at a primary school level. Tertiary education also has its challenges, as the University of Zambia appears to have been closed in 2003 (GTZ).

Skills Training Available to Youth

Zambia has some skills training programmes for youth. The Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TEVETA) was established by government to train school leavers, entrepreneurs in the formal and informal sector. The Zambian Youth Service also equips youth with skills such as carpentry, plumbing, brick works, tailoring, domestic science, leather work, agriculture and other skills.

Impact of Education on Employability

The unemployment levels of those with tertiary education are slightly lower than those with little to no education. However, those with low levels of education are barely able to support themselves. There is a need to match educational attainment with complementary job creation programmes.

Employability

Data not available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Unemployed

According to ILO/SAMAT 2000, Zambia had a labour force of 4,037,000 in 1996, in which youth (12-24 years) formed 33.4% and 67.5% of the unemployed. In 1999, the youth unemployment level (12-19 years) was 38% and stood at 29% for those aged 20-24 years (Monitor for Human Rights and Development Issues). In 2000, the Zambian Central Statistical Office stated that those aged 15-25 years constituted half of the total 6 million unemployed.

Types of Youth Employment

The informal sector employs 78% of the youth labour force, while the formal sector only employs 11% (SARPN).

Historical Trends in Youth Employment

Data was unavailable.

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employable

In 2000 agriculture accounted for 24% of the GDP, while industry accounted for 25% and services 51%. The major sector of employment was the agricultural sector, while a smaller proportion of the population was employed in the industrial sector (6%) and services sector (9%) (2001 World Bank).

What Affects levels of Employment

Zambia’s struggling economy seems a significant factor of the high unemployment levels.

Youth and HIV/AIDS

Zambia faces health problems ranging from malaria to cholera and HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS currently poses the largest health threat as the public health sector is stretched to the maximum with the outbreak of the pandemic. In 2001, HIV/AIDS prevalence for the 15-49 age group was 21.52% (UNDP). However, the Zambian Health Demographics Survey estimates HIV/AIDS prevalence for the same age group as 16%. The youth HIV/AIDS prevalence (15-20 years) was estimated at 20% (Horizon).

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment

Data not available.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

The government and foreign donors are planting resources to help fight the spread of HIV/AIDS through education. There is an increase in awareness of HIV/AIDS in Zambia and behavioral changes amongst the youth have been observed. The ZDHS found that a third of youth aged 20-24 years knew of two acceptable ways of preventing HIV/AIDS. Although no concrete information was available, HIV/AIDS appears to be an economic threat as it is highest among those (30-35 years) at their economic peak.

Key Challenges Facing Youth

One of the biggest challenges facing Zambian youth is unemployment, while other challenges include the threat of HIV infection and a deteriorating education system.

Policies which Affect Youth Related Policies

The Zambian government recognizes youth unemployment as a major problem. For example, in 1994 a youth policy was being developed to improve youth unemployment.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

In 1994 a National Programme of Action for Youth Development was also aimed at combating youth unemployment through the promotion of small-scale enterprises and skills development.  This programme was later revised into a five-year plan covering 1997-2002. This plan encompassed a wide range of issues such as job-creation, health, democratic governance and vocational training. The plan sought to provide practical skills such as carpentry, tailoring, vegetable growing, motor mechanics, as well small-business management.

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

The lack of resources deterred the implementation of the Youth policy.

Conclusion

Zambia is rich in mineral resources and its mining industry is its dominant sector and major earner of foreign exchange. The oil industry is another important element in the economy. These sectors have the potential to serve as employment and self-employment ventures for youth given that the educational and skills needs of the sector are matched in Zambia’s educational system.

Introduction

Zimbabwe is a former British colony that is currently experiencing political turmoil. In 1965 unilateral independence was declared to avoid implementing majority rule. This led to international condemnation and civil war, but it was not until 1980 that UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising led to free multiracial elections and independence. Robert Mugabe has dominated the political system ever since, and his increasingly repressive rule has led to the current state of political and economic crisis.  

Definition of Youth

There is also no clear official definition of what constitutes ‘youth’ in Zimbabwe. Mkandawire states that the youth definition in Zimbabwe is 15-30 years.

Literacy Rate

In the 1980s a massive school-building exercise was launched and school enrolment levels increased significantly. Almost universal literacy for under 25s was achieved, with 98% of youth aged 15-25 years being literate (UNESCO, 2003). However, in recent years the education system has experienced a decline due to the continuing political instability.

Years of Compulsory Education

Primary school is compulsory and runs for 7 years from age 5-12 years. This is followed by 4 years of lower secondary school (Forms I-IV), at the end of which students take the Cambridge School Certificate (CSC) or CGE ‘O’ Level Certificate. At Upper Secondary (Forms V and VI), students study only three subjects and are awarded the Cambridge Higher School Certificate (HSC) or CGE ‘A’ Level Certificate.

Skills Training available to Youth

In terms of skills development the government has recruited youth into national Youth Training Centres in four of the eight provinces and claims that the aim of this is to provide skills training in the form of the Training for Enterprise programme. However, reports from the trainees at these camps indicate that the training offered in these camps is of a military kind. Youth from these camps form youth militia, and there are numerous reports of their involvement in intimidation and violence.

Employability

Data not available.

Percentage of Youth Economically Active and Employed

In 1992 almost half (44%) of youth in the labour force were unemployed (Standard/ILO definition). Between 200,000 and 300,000 school leavers enter the job market every year, but the formal sector is only able to absorb about 30,000 new entrants (Office of the Minister of State in the President’s Office, 2002).

Types of Youth Employment

The informal sector is therefore the only feasible option for the hundreds of thousands of youth, but it provides no guarantee of employment or financial security. Migration to neighbouring countries has steadily increased as more people seek employment opportunities that are no longer available in Zimbabwe.

Historical Trends in Youth (un)employment

Although youth specific data was unavailable, Zimbabwe is currently facing an economic crisis, characterised by an exodus of investors, runaway inflation and a fuel and foreign currency shortage that has disrupted the functioning of the economy. Unemployment has soared from 22% in 1992 (ILO/SAMAT, 2000) to an estimated 80% in 2002 (IMF, World Bank).

Major Economic Sectors by Output and Employment

In 2001, services contributed 55% to GDP, while industry contributed 25% and agriculture 20% (World Development Indicators, 2001). The majority of people (66%) are employed in the agricultural sector, with a quarter (24%) being employed in the service sector and 10% in the industrial sector (CIA, 1996).

HIV/AIDS Prevalence

Zimbabwe has an HIV prevalence rate of 34%, one of the highest in Africa. This is a sharp increase from the estimated 25% two years earlier (USAID, 2002).

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Employment

Data not available.

HIV/AIDS Youth Prevalence

It is difficult to obtain clear figures regarding the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS amongst youth in Zimbabwe, but all indications are that HIV infection is likely to be extremely high amongst youth.

Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention amongst Youth

The government has adopted a national strategic framework on HIV/AIDS and a National AIDS policy. The National AIDS Council was created in May 2000 under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and an AIDS levy has been introduced to generate resources to support HIV/AIDS interventions (USAID, 2002).

Key Challenges Facing Youth

Some of the key challenges facing youth are unemployment, violence and HIV/AIDS.

Policies which Affect Youth or Youth Related Policies

The government implemented the Zimbabwean Employment Creation Act (ZECA) in 2000. This broad strategy addresses economic growth and job creation as a whole and does not target youth unemployment specifically.

 

The main national youth coordinating body is the Zimbabwe National Youth Council (ZNYC). For students the national coordinating body is the Zimbabwe National Students Union (ZINASU) and consists of approximately 5,000 students at university level. The Zimbabwe Youth Forum is a non-profit voluntary NGO registered with the Ministry of Social Welfare and Ministry of Youth Development, Gender and Employment Creation and is also actively involved in youth affairs.

Details of Youth Specific Policies and Programmes

There is very little up-to-date information regarding national youth policies or government programmes. Zimbabwe’s government website was last updated in March 2000, and does not provide information regarding government’s initiatives with youth. According to a representative from the Ministry of National Affairs, Employment Creation and Co-operatives, the government was in the process of drafting a National Youth Policy in 2000 (ILO/SAMAT workshop).

How Successfully have they been Implemented?

It is not clear how far the processes of implementing these policies has progressed.

Conclusion

There have been youth initiatives that have been launched in Zimbabwe. However, these initiatives may have been compromised by a collapsing economy, the increasing rates of HIV/AIDS and political instability. Despite its economic and political crisis, Zimbabwe has well established mining and industrial sectors. The development of these sectors into opportunities for youth would have to be complemented by social and political stability.



[1] Peters C 2003 – Youth Development Journal, eleventh edition April 2003

[2] Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.  Seychelles opted out of SADC during the course of the study..